To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Prior to COVID-19, many Australians experienced extreme bushfires, droughts and floods. A history of experiencing these events might be a risk factor for increased psychological distress during COVID-19. This study aimed to provide insight into the mental health of Australian workers during the initial COVID-19 outbreak, with an additional focus on whether previous disaster exposure and impact from that disaster is a risk factor for increased psychological distress.
A snowball recruitment strategy was used. Participants (n = 596) completed an online survey, which included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, and questions related to mental health and disaster exposure.
Overall, 19.2%, 13.4% and 16.8% of participants were experiencing moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety and stress symptoms respectively. Multiple regression found that higher depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were associated with a pre-existing mental health diagnosis; only higher stress symptoms were associated with having experienced a disaster, with impact, in addition to COVID-19.
People who have experienced impact from an additional disaster might need additional support to protect their mental health during COVID-19. A focus on the cumulative mental health impacts of multiple disasters, and the implications for organisational communities where recovery work is undertaken, such as schools and workplaces, is needed.
Although it has been proposed that all languages may have some lexical stress property, recent studies of (Standard) Indonesian have concluded, based primarily on perception, that lexical stress is not present in this language. While it is philosophically problematic to prove the non-existence of a phenomenon, we examine data from a large-scale production study for both direct and indirect evidence of stress, contributing to the growing body of literature in this field. In the first case, evidence is sought that indicates that a particular syllable in a word exhibits acoustic properties typically associated with prominence (i.e. fundamental frequency (f0), duration, intensity, vowel quality). In the second case, evidence of enhancement of these properties on a particular syllable under focus is sought, for a more abstract stress property that is not overtly manifested at the word level. Although we find no evidence of lexical prominence, we observe acoustic patterns consistent with a higher level prominence corresponding to focus, manifested by strong (Intonational Phrase) boundary properties. Overall, our findings reveal that there is strong support for a class of languages lacking lexical stress, and in the absence of a stressed syllable to enhance, focus may be manifested prosodically as boundary properties.
This study aims to assess the stress levels, stress busters (stress relievers), and coping mechanisms among Saudi dental practitioners (SDPs) during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak.
Self-administered questionnaire was sent to SDPs via Google forms. Cohen’s stress score scale was used for stress evaluation, and the mean scores were compared based on age, gender, qualification, and occupation. In addition, comparisons of the utilization of stress coping mechanisms and stress busters based on gender, age, and occupation were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were carried out using SPSS (Version 21.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA).
A total of 206 SDPs (69% males and 31% females) participated in the study. Male SDPs showed a higher score than females (P>0.05). SDPs around 50 years and above obtained high-stress scores (25±7.4) as compared to other age groups (P<0.05). The occupational level showed higher stress scores (22.6 ± 4.6 than the other occupation groups (P<0.05). The majority of the SDPs used watching TV/mobile/computer (80%) as a stress buster, followed by binge eating (64%), exercise (44%), smoking (32%), do it yourself (DIY-23%), and meditation (17%).
SDPs are experiencing stress levels during this COVID-19 pandemic time. Male SDPs above 50 years and private practitioners showed higher levels of stress scores. An overall commonly used stress buster was smoking in males and meditation in females.
For self-control to be possible, it is important we prepare our bodies to provide the necessary energy to fuel our mental abilities. Unfortunately, many of us neglect the value of preparing ourselves physically in order to ease the high demands on the demanding self-control process. This chapter speaks about the importance of our physical abilities to fueling effective self-control and details the factors that impact those abilities (sleep, stress, and circadian rhythm). As such, it is important to identify the factors that deprive and exhaust our physical resources so that we are able to maximize our mental capabilities when engaging in goal pursuit.
It is well established that migraine is a multifactorial disorder. A deep understanding of migraine should be based upon both the underlying traits and the current states affected by different physiological, psychological, and environmental factors. At this point, there is no framework fully meeting these criteria. Here, we describe a broader view of the migraine disorder defined as a dysfunctional brain state and trait interaction. In this model, we consider events that may enhance or diminish migraine responsivity based on an individual’s trait and state. This could provide an expanded view for considering how migraine attacks are sometimes precipitated by “triggers” and sometimes not, how these factors only lead to migraine attacks in migraine patients, or how individuals with an increased risk for migraine do not show any symptoms at all. Summarizing recent studies and evidence that support the concept of migraine as a brain state–trait interaction can also contribute to improving patient care by highlighting the importance of precision medicine and applying measures that are able to capture how different traits and states work together to determine migraine.
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) have been associated with stress responses and increased vulnerability to depression. Abnormal DNAm is observed in stressed animals and depressed individuals. Antidepressant treatment modulates DNAm levels and regulates gene expression in diverse tissues, including the brain and the blood. Therefore, DNAm could be a potential therapeutic target in depression. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the involvement of DNAm in the behavioral and molecular changes associated with stress exposure and depression. We also evaluated the possible use of DNAm changes as biomarkers of depression. Finally, we discussed our current knowledge limitations and future perspectives.
Prenatal loss which occurs in approximately 20% of pregnancies represents a well-established risk factor for anxiety and affective disorders. In the current study, we examined whether a history of prenatal loss is associated with a subsequent pregnancy with maternal psychological state using ecological momentary assessment (EMA)-based measures of pregnancy-specific distress and mood in everyday life.
This study was conducted in a cohort of N = 155 healthy pregnant women, of which N = 40 had a history of prenatal loss. An EMA protocol was used in early and late pregnancy to collect repeated measures of maternal stress and mood, on average eight times per day over a consecutive 4-day period. The association between a history of prenatal loss and psychological state was estimated using linear mixed models.
Compared to women who had not experienced a prior prenatal loss, women with a history of prenatal loss reported higher levels of pregnancy-specific distress in early as well as late pregnancy and also were more nervous and tired. Furthermore, in the comparison group pregnancy-specific distress decreased and mood improved from early to late pregnancy, whereas these changes across pregnancy were not evident in women in the prenatal loss group.
Our findings suggest that prenatal loss in a prior pregnancy is associated with a subsequent pregnancy with significantly higher stress and impaired mood levels in everyday life across gestation. These findings have important implications for designing EMA-based ambulatory, personalized interventions to reduce stress during pregnancy in this high-risk group.
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with distress experienced by physicians during their first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triage decisions.
An online survey was administered to physicians licensed in New York State.
Of the 164 physicians studied, 20.7% experienced severe distress during their first COVID-19 triage decisions. The mean distress score was not significantly different between physicians who received just-in-time training and those who did not (6.0 ± 2.7 vs 6.2 ± 2.8; P = 0.550) and between physicians who received clinical guidelines and those who did not (6.0 ± 2.9 vs 6.2 ± 2.7; P = 0.820). Substantially increased odds of severe distress were found in physicians who reported that their first COVID-19 triage decisions were inconsistent with their core values (adjusted odds ratio, 6.33; 95% confidence interval, 2.03-19.76) and who reported having insufficient skills and expertise (adjusted odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91-9.87).
Approximately 1 in 5 physicians in New York experienced severe distress during their first COVID-19 triage decisions. Physicians with insufficient skills and expertise, and core values misaligned to triage decisions are at heightened risk of experiencing severe distress. Just-in-time training and clinical guidelines do not appear to alleviate distress experienced by physicians during their first COVID-19 triage decisions.
Burnout has been associated with medical errors and low levels should be considered an indicator of service quality. This study examined the level of personal, work and client-related burnout in medical, other clinical and non-clinical staff in an adult community mental health service.
An anonymous study-specific questionnaire was designed and circulated to all staff with an explanatory document. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory was used as a validated measure of burnout, with high levels reflecting high rates of stress and burnout. Further questions were added from Maslach Burnout Inventory and effort–reward imbalance index. Information on demographics, job satisfaction, turnover intention, feeling valued and effort/reward balance was gathered and analysed.
The overall response rate was 47.4% (63/133), of whom 43 were clinical staff. Overall levels of burnout were low and similar across staff type, with only 30.1% showing moderate levels of burnout, and none in the ‘high-burnout’ category. All staff displayed positive disposition towards patients, with lower client burnout, as compared to personal and work-related burnout. All medical staff felt valued in their work, with lower rates in the other groups (48.7% of non-medical clinicians and 58.3% of non-clinical staff).
Relatively low levels of overall burnout were reported among clinical and non-clinical staff working in our adult mental health service. These rates are similar to the levels identified in a national study of burnout in Irish hospital doctors but lower than the levels found among consultants in Irish child and adolescent mental health services.
The manifestations of stress are diverse and culturally and individually determined, but it is present in every culture, every socioeconomic level and – it is global. Introducing a special BJPsych Advances issue on stress, this editorial outlines research questions to be examined and first actions to be taken in the multidimensional sphere of stress, highlighting the need for a collaborative interdisciplinary approach in both research and practice.
The problem of occupational stress in healthcare workers is hardly new, but effective interventions in this area are lacking despite being sorely needed – especially in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The results of a Cochrane review suggest that cognitive–behavioural therapy and mental and physical relaxation reduce stress more than no intervention but not more than alternative interventions, and that changing work schedules may lead to a reduction of stress. Other organisational interventions showed no effect on stress levels. However, the evidence is of low quality owing to risk of bias and lack of precision. This commentary critically appraises the review and attempts to put its findings into the current real-world context.
Parents of infants born with critical congenital heart disease are at risk for adverse mental health symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify infant-, parent-, and environmental-based stressors for mothers and fathers after their infants’ cardiac surgery, and to explore relationships between stressors and mental health symptoms of anxiety and depression.
This study enrolled 28 biological mother-father dyads from families admitted to the paediatric cardiac intensive care unit for cardiac surgery at one free-standing children’s hospital in the Northeast. Paired t-tests were used to examine group differences between mothers and fathers on perceived stressors and mental health symptoms, while linear mixed effects modelling was used to explore the predictive relationship between perceived stressors, personal factors, and mental health symptoms.
Mothers reported higher perceived stressor scores of parental role alteration (t = 4.03, p < 0.01) and infant appearance and behaviour (t = 2.61, p = 0.02), and total perceived stress (t = 2.29 p = 0.03), compared to fathers. Mothers also reported higher anxiety (t = 2.47, p = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.01) than fathers. In multivariable analysis, parental role alteration significantly predicted anxiety (t = 5.20, p < 0.01, d = 0.77) and depressive symptoms (t = 7.09, p < 0.01, d = 1.05) for mothers and fathers. The consensus subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale also significantly predicted depressive symptoms (t = −2.42, p = 0.02, d = 0.04).
Parents were distressed during their infant’s admission for surgical repair for critical congenital heart disease. Parental role alteration was significantly associated with parental anxiety and depressive symptoms, while poor relationship quality was associated with depressive symptoms, highlighting areas for potential nursing-led psychosocial led interventions.
It is important to maintain the psychological well-being of front-line healthcare staff during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
To examine COVID-19-related stress and its immediate psychological impact on healthcare staff.
All healthcare staff working in the fever clinic, from 20 January 2020 to 26 March 2020, of a tertiary general hospital were enrolled. Stress management procedures were in place to alleviate concerns about the respondents’ own health and the health of their families, to help them adjust their work and to provide psychological support via a hotline. Qualitative interviews were undertaken and the Sources of Distress and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered.
Among the 102 participants (25 males; median age 30 years, interquartile range (IQR) = 27–36), the median IES-R total score was 3 (IQR = 0–8), and 6 participants (6.0%) scored above the cut-off on the IES-R (≥20). Safety and security were acceptable or better for 92 (90.2%) participants. The top four sources of distress were worry about the health of one's family/others at 0.88 (IQR = 0.25–1.25), worry about the virus spread at 0.50 (IQR = 0.00–1.00), worry about changes in work at 0.50 (IQR = 0.00–1.00) and worry about one's own health at 0.25 (IQR = 0.25–0.75). There was a moderate correlation between the IES-R score and the Sources of Distress score (rho = 0.501, P = 0.001).
The stress levels of healthcare staff in the fever clinic during the COVID-19 epidemic were not elevated. Physio-psychosocial interventions, including fulfilment of basic needs, activation of self-efficacy and psychological support, are helpful and worth recommending in fighting COVID-19.
In the Finnish medical discussion during the middle decades of the twentieth century, the challenging differential diagnostics between hyperthyroidism and various neuroses was perceived to yield a risk of unnecessary surgical interventions of psychiatric patients. In 1963, the Finnish surgeon Erkki Saarenmaa claimed that ‘the most significant mark of a neurotic was a transverse scar on the neck’, a result of an unnecessary thyroid surgery. The utterance was connected to the complex nature of thyroid diseases, which seemed to be to ‘a great extent psychosomatic’. Setting forth from this statement, the article aims to decipher the connection between hyperthyroidism, unnecessary surgical treatment and the psychosomatic approach in Finnish medicine. Utilising a wide variety of published medical research and discussion in specialist journals, the article examines the theoretical debate around troublesome diagnostics of functional complaints. It focuses on the introduction of new medical ideas, namely the concepts of ‘psychosomatics’ and ‘stress’. In the process, the article aims to unveil a definition of psychosomatic illness that places it on a continuum between psychological and somatic illness. That psychosomatic approach creates a space with interpretative potential can be applied to the historiography of psychosomatic phenomena more generally. Further inquiry into the intersections of surgery and psychosomatics would enrich both historiographies. It is also argued that the historical study of psychosomatic syndromes may become skewed, if the term ‘psychosomatic’ is from the outset taken to signify something that is all in the mind.
Pregnant women may be especially susceptible to negative events (i.e. adversity) related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and negative affective responses to these events (i.e. stress). We examined the latent structure of stress and adversity related to the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women, potential antecedents of COVID-19-related stress and adversity in this population, and associations with prenatal depressive symptoms.
We surveyed 725 pregnant women residing in the San Francisco Bay Area in March−May 2020, 343 of whom provided addresses that were geocoded and matched by census tract to measures of community-level risk. We compared their self-reported depressive symptoms to women matched on demographic factors and history of mental health difficulties who were pregnant prior to the pandemic.
Women who were pregnant during the pandemic were nearly twice as likely to have possible depression than were matched women who were pregnant prior to the pandemic. Individual- and community-level factors tied to socioeconomic inequality were associated with latent factors of COVID-19-related stress and adversity. Beyond objective adversity, subjective stress responses were strongly associated with depressive symptoms during the pandemic.
Highlighting the role of subjective responses in vulnerability to prenatal depression and factors that influence susceptibility to COVID-19-related stress, these findings inform the allocation of resources to support recovery from this pandemic and future disease outbreaks. In addition to policies that mitigate disruptions to the environment due to the pandemic, treatments that focus on cognitions about the self and the environment may help to alleviate depressive symptoms in pregnant women.
The aim of this study was to use a mixed-method analysis to investigate the associations between qualitative themes found in written responses and quantitative reported level of stress after Hurricane Sandy.
A survey was conducted among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees 5-12 mo after Hurricane Sandy. This study included 1202 participants who completed the free-response section and answered the question on how stressful their experiences were with Hurricane Sandy and its aftermath. Content analysis was used to generate qualitative data. Mixed-methods analysis was performed using a 1-way analysis of variance test for bivariate comparisons of qualitative thematic codes and the quantitative outcome of mean Sandy stress scores.
Seven themes emerged from the qualitative analysis. The themes of lack of information, negative emotional response, and financial stress had higher quantitative mean Sandy stress scores compared with other themes. The theme of patriotism/gratitude had an overall lower quantitative Sandy stress scores than other themes.
Qualitative and mixed-methods research on mental health outcomes after a disaster add new depth and findings to the existing literature. Using such methodologies to identify modifiable factors, such as improving communication during a disaster, may confer better mental health outcomes after a disaster.
Treatment of depression during childhood and early adolescence frequently involves numerous challenges, including co-morbidity, stress and mental health problems within the family. Given the embeddedness of youth within family structures during this developmental period, a family-based model may be particularly advantageous. Family-focused treatment for childhood depression (FFT-CD) is a developmentally-informed intervention that specifically targets family interactions to build strengths and resiliency within the family system to better manage and combat depression. By incorporating an interpersonal model, family members are assisted in identifying both ‘upward’ (helpful and positive) and ‘downward’ (unhelpful and negative) interactional spirals. This model provides a powerful and positive rationale for family inclusion in treatment and specifies the goals of the intervention. In further family sessions, psycho-education, communication enhancement, behavioral activation and problem-solving skills development are then used to build on existing strengths and disrupt negative transactions. In this chapter we describe the conceptual roots and intervention strategies of FFT-CD, illustrate its implementation using case descriptions and discuss core clinician competencies and approaches to common challenges in its implementation (e.g., co-morbidity, sibling inclusion, family stress). FFT-CD provides a flexible and efficacious intervention for depressive symptoms and disorders during a crucial period of development.
The second chapter deals with the fundamental of continuum mechanics. It describes stresses and strains in a continuum. This is followed by fundamental laws of mechanics and constitutive relations. Elasticity and Hooke's law are described. Next, the chapter describes poroelasticity as well as poroplasticity, followed by fracture mechanics. Finally, rock physics models as applied to pore pressure detection are described.
The worldwide stress that is a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic illuminates the need for mental preventive actions. Such ‘mental vaccines’ should be interdisciplinary and culturally sensitive. They should enhance resilience and adaptation of communities as well as vulnerable individuals.
Stress-related disorders are diverse and they may be mental and physical. Often, several body systems and organs are involved simultaneously. The pathophysiology of stress-related disorders involves many factors: an observable or perceived stressor, an individual dynamically evolving vulnerability and maladaptation leading to imbalance, as well as environmental, cultural, gender and life-cycle variables. There is a need to develop a comprehensive quantifiable stress assessment instrument. It would be based on the ‘stress factor’, a dimension that would integrate biological, psychological, social, economic and spiritual parameters and would allow for cultural sensitivity. It would contribute to clinical operational sophistication and would illuminate treatment options and multidimensional well-being interventions. Hopefully, it would facilitate development of culturally sensitive pharmaceutical or biophysiological adaptogens and homeostatic interventions.