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The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS) is a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Since its start in 1964, over 10,000 twin-pairs have been registered. EFPTS has several unique features: it is population-based and prospective, with the possibility of long-term follow-up; the twins (and higher order multiple births) are recruited at birth; basic perinatal data are recorded; chorion type and zygosity are established; since 1969, placental biopsies have been taken and frozen at –20°C for future research. Since its origin, the EFPTS has included placental data and allows differentiation of three subtypes of monozygotic twins based on the time of the initial zygotic division: the dichorionic–diamniotic pairs (early, with splitting before the fourth day after fertilization), the monochorionic–diamniotic pairs (intermediate, splitting between the fourth- and the seventh-day postfertilization) and the monochorionic–monoamniotic pairs (late, splitting after the eighth day postfertilization). Studies can be initiated taking into account primary biases, those originating ‘in utero’. Such studies could throw new light on the consequences of early embryological events and the gene–environment interactions as far as periconceptional and intrauterine environment are concerned.
Despite the environmental stresses that mangrove forests experience – including fluctuating salinity, low soil oxygen and buffeting by waves – they can be highly productive. Facilitation, defined here as the benefits to an organism by the minimisation by neighbouring organisms of biotic or physical stress, may help explain this. Theory suggests that facilitation is likely in stressful environments, and trees and shrubs have been found to be particularly likely to exhibit facilitation. Hence, we should find facilitation in mangrove forests, and this chapter summarises new and published evidence for its existence. Facilitation occurs at a wide range of scales and during all different points in a mangrove tree's life. Amelioration of hydrodynamic and dessicative stresses can be important during seedling establishment and early growth. Interactions with fauna, including crabs and ants, can sustain tree production and help defend against herbivores. Ecosystem-scale facilitation helps ensure resilience in the face of changes such as sea-level rise. Hence facilitation is common in mangroves, and the challenge now is to gain a theoretical understanding of when and where to expect it.
Stress can exert modulatory effects on pain perception in animals, as exposure to a stressor can result in either the reduction or amplification of the perceived severity of pain. These phenomena are widely described as stress-induced analgesia (SIA) and stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The two are mediated by the same underlying mechanisms, but occur due to different stressors and different responses from the pain pathway. SIA and SIH have been demonstrated with a variety of stress and pain stimuli in rodents, humans and other mammals. There is some evidence that SIA occurs in birds and that they have the neurological systems and brain regions necessary for SIH. Tonic immobility (TI) is related to SIA in mammals, and there is evidence the avian brain is compatible with TI having analgesic effect, but it could have a hyperalgesic effect. This review looks at the mechanisms and evidence of SIA, SIH and TI in mammals and discusses evidence relating to the occurrence of these phenomena in birds.
This study reviews patient encounters at a Boston-area community hospital Psychiatric Emergency Services (PES) following the Boston Marathon bombings, with the goal of describing the impact of terrorist attacks on PES encounters.
All PES encounters for 2 months preceding and 2 months following the bombing were identified in the electronic medical record. Demographics, current and past psychiatric problems, and trauma history were assessed for all records. Encounters seen post-bombing were compared with those before the bombing.
Demographics, current and past psychiatric problems, and trauma history were not significantly different before versus after the bombing; 36 of 440 (8.2%) post-bombing encounters directly mentioned the bombings. New-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms caused by the bombing occurred in only 4 encounters (0.9%).
PES encounters after a terrorist event are likely to mirror those seen before a terrorist event, with only a minority of encounters presenting for new PTSD or acute stress disorder.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
A large body of evidence has shown that stress throughout life is associated with health trajectories, but the combination of adverse experiences at different stages of the life course is not yet well understood. This study examines the interactions between childhood adversity, adulthood adversity, and adult physical and mental health. Using data from The Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study (CRCS) supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we created indices of early life adversity (EAI) and adult adversity (AAI). We used logistic regression to examine the effects of EAI and AAI, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, health behaviors, and childhood health as covariates in all models. We repeated this analysis for the outcomes of fair/poor health, two or more chronic conditions, and psychological distress in adulthood. For all the three outcomes, our findings suggest increasing salience of adult adversity among those who experienced higher levels of early adversity. Individuals with high EAI and high AAI exhibited the highest odds of fair/poor health (OR = 5.71), chronic conditions (OR = 3.06), and psychological distress (OR = 13.08) compared to those with low EAI and low AAI. These findings are consistent with the accumulation of risk or dual risk model of stress and health. Adversity in childhood amplifies the health risks associated with stress in adulthood for multiple health outcomes.
Teaching is one of the most stressful occupations. This study explores how teachers’ psychological capital — a combination of hope, resilience, optimism and self-efficacy — is related to stress, wellbeing, appraisal and coping. Teachers (n = 1502) across New Zealand and from a range of teaching levels completed surveys. Participants with more psychological capital reported less stress and more wellbeing, saw work demands more as challenges than threats, and reported using more task-focused and less emotion-focused coping strategies. Psychological capital appeared to be directly related to increased wellbeing and reduced stress. Given the importance of teacher wellbeing for the profession and for students, we need ways to build teachers’ personal resources and, importantly, to ensure that teaching environments support wellbeing.
The ability of “comfort-food” (CF) diet to revert long-term effects of early-life stress (ELS) is less well known. The objective of this study was to verify if the chronic exposure to CF diet in animals submitted to ELS could relief the stress response at behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neurobiochemical levels, via differences in glucocorticoid receptors expression in brain areas involved in the stress response. From the second day of life, litters of Wistar rats and their mothers were submitted to the reduced nesting material protocol (ELS). In adult life, ELS and a control group were exposed chronically to two diet schemes: standard rat chow only or both “CF” diet, containing fat (34%) and sugar (20%) and a diet similar to the standard diet. Anxiety-like behavior, neuroendocrine response stress, leptin, GR, SOCS-3, pSTAT3, and the abdominal fat were evaluated. The anxiety-like behavior results showed that ELS group when exposed to comfort food were not different from the others groups. Chronic exposure to CF diet induced an anxiety-like behavior in the control group. Groups chronically exposed to CF diet had lower levels of corticosterone over time independent of the neonatal group. The ELS group exposed to the “CF” diet had higher levels of hippocampal GR, lower levels of hypothalamic SOCS-3 and greater accumulation of abdominal fat. Chronic CF diet consumption is able to reduce corticosterone levels independent of the neonatal history, but is associated with anxiety-like behavior in animals without previous history of trauma. Metabolic disturbances like increased adiposity and altered SOCS-3 seem to be a result of multiple insults (neonatal trauma followed by chronic CF diet). We highlight that the Control-chow and ELS-chow data were previously published, and are included in this study for comparative analysis.
One generation's experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with that of the next. However, whether this intergenerational transmission is specific to distinct forms of maltreatment and what factors may contribute to its continuity remains unclear. Borderline personality pathology is predicted by childhood maltreatment and characterized by features (e.g., dysregulated emotion, relationship instability, impulsivity, and inconsistent appraisals of others) that may contribute to its propagation. Among 364 older adults and 573 of their adult children (total n = 937), self-reported exposure to distinct forms of childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) showed homotypic and heterotypic associations across generations with little evidence that latent factors unique to specific forms of maltreatment show generational continuity. General nonspecific indices of childhood maltreatment showed evidence of intergenerational transmission after accounting for demographic factors and parent socioeconomic status (b = 0.126, p = 9.21 × 10−4). This continuity was partially mediated by parental borderline personality pathology (assessed longitudinally through a variety of measures and sources, indirect effect: b = 0.031, 95% confidence interval [0.003, 0.060]). The intergenerational continuity of childhood maltreatment may largely represent general risk for nonspecific maltreatment that may, in part, be propagated by borderline personality pathology and/or shared risk factors.
Depression is a disorder caused by genetics and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to perform a review investigating the interaction between genetic variations located in genes involved in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and stressful life events (SLEs) in depression.
In this systematic review, we selected articles investigating the interaction between genes involved in the HPA-axis, such as Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 (CRHR1), Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 (CRHR2), FK506 binding protein (FKBP5), Nuclear Receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1), Nuclear Receptor subfamily 3 group C member 2 (NR3C2), and SLE. The literature search was conducted using the Pubmed, Embase, and PsychINFO databases in adherence with the PRISMA guidelines.
The search yielded 48 potentially relevant studies, of which 40 were excluded following screening. Eight studies were included in the final review. A total of 97 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined in the eight included studies. The most prevalent gene was FKBP5, and the best studied polymorphism was FKBP5:rs1360780. Two of the five studies reported significant gene–environment (G × E) interactions between rs1360780 and SLE. Overall, four studies reported significant G × E interactions between FKBP5, CRH, or CRHR1 and SLE, respectively. No significant G × E interactions were found for the remaining genes.
Our results suggest that genetic variation in three genes in the HPA-axis possibly moderate the effects of SLEs in depression.
We explored how positive and negative life experiences of caregivers are associated with household food insecurity.
The Midlands Family Study (MFS) was a cross-sectional study with three levels of household food security: food secure, food insecure without child hunger and food insecure with child hunger. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used for analyses of negative and positive life experiences (number, impact, type) associated with food insecurity.
An eight-county region in South Carolina, USA, in 2012–2013.
Caregivers (n 511) in households with children.
Caregivers who reported greater numbers of negative life experiences and greater perceived impact had increased odds of household food insecurity and reporting their children experienced hunger. Each additional negative life experience count of the caregiver was associated with a 16 % greater odds of food insecurity without child hunger and a 28 % greater odds of child hunger. Each one-unit increase in the negative impact score (e.g. a worsening) was associated with 8 % higher odds of food insecurity without child hunger and 12 % higher odds of child hunger. Negative work experiences or financial instability had the strongest association (OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·5, 2·2) with child hunger. Positive life experiences were generally not associated with food security status, with one exception: for each unit increase in the number of positive experiences involving family and other relationships, the odds of child hunger decreased by 22 %.
More research is needed to understand approaches to build resilience against negative life experiences and strengthen positive familial, community and social relationships.
While child poverty is a significant risk factor for poor mental health, the developmental pathways involved with these associations are poorly understood. To advance knowledge about these important linkages, the present study examined the developmental sequelae of childhood exposure to poverty in a multiyear longitudinal study. Here, we focused on exposure to poverty, neurobiological circuitry connected to emotion dysregulation, later exposure to stressful life events, and symptoms of psychopathology. We grounded our work in a biopsychosocial perspective, with a specific interest in “stress sensitization” and emotion dysregulation. Motivated by past work, we first tested whether exposure to poverty was related to changes in the resting-state coupling between two brain structures centrally involved with emotion processing and regulation (the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; vmPFC). As predicted, we found lower household income at age 10 was related to lower resting-state coupling between these areas at age 15. We then tested if variations in amygdala–vmPFC connectivity interacted with more contemporaneous stressors to predict challenges with mental health at age 16. In line with past reports showing risk for poor mental health is greatest in those exposed to early and then later, more contemporaneous stress, we predicted and found that lower vmPFC–amygdala coupling in the context of greater contemporaneous stress was related to higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We believe these important interactions between neurobiology and life history are an additional vantage point for understanding risk and resiliency, and suggest avenues for prediction of psychopathology related to early life challenge.
A crisis is a complex situation, which actors have some difficulties to manage it. They are under stress to deal with problems that they cannot predict consequences. The human conditions (familial and life) and, the influence of the environment (politic, economic, media) pushes the actors to lose control of the crisis situation. The question we face in this paper is: “is it possible to predict the impact of the stress in this type of situation?” Our main hypothesis to answer is to represent experience feedback using knowledge management. To model the crisis management as systemic system emphasizing regulation loops, and the collaboration activity by showing the dimension of the communication, coordination, and cooperation. This modeling is illustrated in a terrorist attack situation in Algeria. To predict stress consequences, fuzzy set principle is adopted, based on experience feedback and situations modeling, as a generator of alternative states given a stress event.
Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
This chapter begins with coverage of the quantitative concepts used to describe the deformation of solids by seismic waves, namely the concepts of stress, strain, and dilatation. This is followed by the derivation of equations for describing seismic wave motion in the subsurface, namely, the equation of motion, conservation of energy, kinetic and strain-energy density, intensity or energy flux, the stress–strain relation, isotropy, hydrostatic stress, elastic constants (which are related to the nature of the medium in which waves travel), the wave equations, compressional and shear waves, plane harmonic waves, displacement potentials, Helmholtz equations, near-field and far-field waves, mean values, and the acoustic wave equation. The chapter ends with examples that discuss seismic waves produced by a buried explosive charge and by a directed point force, and discussions of the moment tensor and apparent velocities.
The concept of personal resilience is relevant to physician well-being, recruitment and retention, and to delivering compassionate patient care. This systematic review aims to explore factors affecting personal resilience among psychiatrists, in particular, those that may impair well-being and those that facilitate resilience practice. A literature search was performed of the Ovid®, Embase®, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases, using keywords to identify empirical studies involving psychiatrists that examined resilience, stress and burnout from the past 15 years.
Thirty-three international English language studies were included, showing that a combination of workplace, personal and non-workplace factors negatively and positively influenced well-being and resilience.
Given that workplace factors were the most commonly cited, it would appear that any resilience package that predominantly targets interventions at the workplace level would be particularly fruitful. Future research, however, needs to address the absence of a universal measurement of well-being and its moderators so that any potential interventions are better evaluated.
Positive social relationships are known to mitigate the negative effects of stress on mental health. However, the direction of association between social resources and mental health remains unclear, and it is not known whether higher than average levels of social resources confer additional benefits, in the short and longer term.
To investigate the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of higher levels of social resources in reducing the risk of mental health symptoms after exposure to stress at age 45, and to identify life-course precursors of mid-life social resources.
The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is a prospective birth cohort of over 17 000 births in 1958. We tested concurrent and longitudinal associations between different levels of social resources at age 45 and mental health symptoms among individuals exposed to stress and verified whether prior mental health symptoms (age 42) explained these associations. We also tested a range of child, family and adult precursors of mid-life social resources.
Higher than average levels of social resources were required to confer benefits to mental health among individuals exposed to high stress levels, both concurrently at age 45 and in the longer term at age 50. In general, these associations were not attributable to prior mental health symptoms. Key predictors of mid-life social resources included evidence of early sociability.
Having a broad network of social ties and better personal support helps individuals withstand exposure to higher levels of stress. Given that sociable children had better mid-life social resources, early intervention may benefit individuals' social resources later in life.
From birth to slaughter, pigs are in constant interaction with microorganisms. Exposure of the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and other systems allows microorganisms to affect the developmental trajectory and function of porcine physiology as well as impact behavior. These routes of communication are bi-directional, allowing the swine host to likewise influence microbial survival, function and community composition. Microbial endocrinology is the study of the bi-directional dialogue between host and microbe. Indeed, the landmark discovery of host neuroendocrine systems as hubs of host–microbe communication revealed neurochemicals act as an inter-kingdom evolutionary-based language between microorganism and host. Several such neurochemicals are stress catecholamines, which have been shown to drastically increase host susceptibility to infection and augment virulence of important swine pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens. Catecholamines, the production of which increase in response to stress, reach the epithelium of multiple tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract and lung, where they initiate diverse responses by members of the microbiome as well as transient microorganisms, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. Multiple laboratories have confirmed the evolutionary role of microbial endocrinology in infectious disease pathogenesis extending from animals to even plants. More recent investigations have now shown that microbial endocrinology also plays a role in animal behavior through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. As stress and disease are ever-present, intersecting concerns during each stage of swine production, novel strategies utilizing a microbial endocrinology-based approach will likely prove invaluable to the swine industry.
The aims of this meta-analysis are (i) to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of developing non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and affective psychotic disorder (APD) among migrants and their children; (ii) to adjust these results for socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) to examine the sources of heterogeneity that underlie the risk of NAPD.
We included population-based incidence studies that reported an age-adjusted RR with 95% confidence interval (CI) published 1 January 1977–12 October 2017 and used a random-effects model.
We retrieved studies performed in Europe (n = 43), Israel (n = 3), Canada (n = 2) and Australia (n = 1). The meta-analysis yielded a RR, adjusted for age and sex, of 2.13 (95% CI 1.99–2.27) for NAPD and 2.94 (95% CI 2.28–3.79) for APD. The RRs diminished, but persisted after adjustment for SES. With reference to NAPD: a personal or parental history of migration to Europe from countries outside Europe was associated with a higher RR (RR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.63–3.29) than migration within Europe (RR = 1.88, 95% 1.62–2.18). The corresponding RR was lower in Israel (RR = 1.22; 0.99–1.50) and Canada (RR = 1.21; 0.85–1.74). The RR was highest among individuals with a black skin colour (RR = 4.19, 95% CI 3.42–5.14). The evidence of a difference in risk between first and second generation was insufficient.
Positive selection may explain the low risk in Canada, while the change from exclusion to inclusion may do the same in Israel. Given the high risks among migrants from developing countries in Europe, social exclusion may have a pathogenic role.